Documentation

ipaddr filter

New in version 1.9.

ipaddr() is a Jinja2 filter designed to provide an interface to netaddr Python package from within Ansible. It can operate on strings or lists of items, test various data to check if they are valid IP addresses and manipulate the input data to extract requested information. ipaddr() works both with IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in various forms, there are also additional functions available to manipulate IP subnets and MAC addresses.

To use this filter in Ansible, you need to install netaddr Python library on a computer on which you use Ansible (it is not required on remote hosts). It can usually be installed either via your system package manager, or using pip:

pip install netaddr

Basic tests

ipaddr() is designed to return the input value if a query is True, and False if query is False. This way it can be very easily used in chained filters. To use the filter, pass a string to it

{{ '192.0.2.0' | ipaddr }}

You can also pass the values as variables:

{{ myvar | ipaddr }}

Here are some example tests of various input strings:

# These values are valid IP addresses or network ranges
'192.168.0.1'       -> 192.168.0.1
'192.168.32.0/24'   -> 192.168.32.0/24
'fe80::100/10'      -> fe80::100/10
45443646733         -> ::a:94a7:50d
'523454/24'         -> 0.7.252.190/24

# Values that are not valid IP addresses or network ranges:
'localhost'         -> False
True                -> False
'space bar'         -> False
False               -> False
''                  -> False
':'                 -> False
'fe80:/10'          -> False

Sometimes you need either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. To filter only for particular type, ipaddr() filter has two “aliases”, ipv4() and ipv6().

Example us of an IPv4 filter:

{{ myvar | ipv4 }}

And similar example of an IPv6 filter:

{{ myvar | ipv6 }}

Here’s an example test to look for IPv4 addresses:

'192.168.0.1'       -> 192.168.0.1
'192.168.32.0/24'   -> 192.168.32.0/24
'fe80::100/10'      -> False
45443646733         -> False
'523454/24'         -> 0.7.252.190/24

And the same data filtered for IPv6 addresses:

'192.168.0.1'       -> False
'192.168.32.0/24'   -> False
'fe80::100/10'      -> fe80::100/10
45443646733         -> ::a:94a7:50d
'523454/24'         -> False

Filtering lists

You can filter entire lists - ipaddr() will return a list with values valid for a particular query:

# Example list of values
test_list = ['192.24.2.1', 'host.fqdn', '::1', '192.168.32.0/24', 'fe80::100/10', True, '', '42540766412265424405338506004571095040/64']

# {{ test_list | ipaddr }}
['192.24.2.1', '::1', '192.168.32.0/24', 'fe80::100/10', '2001:db8:32c:faad::/64']

# {{ test_list | ipv4 }}
['192.24.2.1', '192.168.32.0/24']

# {{ test_list | ipv6 }}
['::1', 'fe80::100/10', '2001:db8:32c:faad::/64']

Wrapping IPv6 addresses in [ ] brackets

Some configuration files require IPv6 addresses to be “wrapped” in square brackets ([ ]). To accomplish that, you can use ipwrap() filter. It will wrap all IPv6 addresses and leave any other strings intact:

# {{ test_list | ipwrap }}
['192.24.2.1', 'host.fqdn', '[::1]', '192.168.32.0/24', '[fe80::100]/10', True, '', '[2001:db8:32c:faad::]/64']

As you can see, ipwrap() did not filter out non-IP address values, which is usually what you want when for example you are mixing IP addresses with hostnames. If you still want to filter out all non-IP address values, you can chain both filters together:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr | ipwrap }}
['192.24.2.1', '[::1]', '192.168.32.0/24', '[fe80::100]/10', '[2001:db8:32c:faad::]/64']

Basic queries

You can provide single argument to each ipaddr() filter. Filter will then treat it as a query and return values modified by that query. Lists will contain only values that you are querying for.

Types of queries include:

  • query by name: ipaddr('address'), ipv4('network');
  • query by CIDR range: ipaddr('192.168.0.0/24'), ipv6('2001:db8::/32');
  • query by index number: ipaddr('1'), ipaddr('-1');

If a query type is not recognized, Ansible will raise an error.

Getting information about hosts and networks

Here’s our test list again:

# Example list of values
test_list = ['192.24.2.1', 'host.fqdn', '::1', '192.168.32.0/24', 'fe80::100/10', True, '', '42540766412265424405338506004571095040/64']

Lets take above list and get only those elements that are host IP addresses, and not network ranges:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('address') }}
['192.24.2.1', '::1', 'fe80::100']

As you can see, even though some values had a host address with a CIDR prefix, it was dropped by the filter. If you want host IP addresses with their correct CIDR prefixes (as is common with IPv6 addressing), you can use ipaddr('host') filter:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('host') }}
['192.24.2.1/32', '::1/128', 'fe80::100/10']

Filtering by IP address types also works:

# {{ test_list | ipv4('address') }}
['192.24.2.1']

# {{ test_list | ipv6('address') }}
['::1', 'fe80::100']

You can check if IP addresses or network ranges are accessible on a public Internet, or if they are in private networks:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('public') }}
['192.24.2.1', '2001:db8:32c:faad::/64']

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('private') }}
['192.168.32.0/24', 'fe80::100/10']

You can check which values are specifically network ranges:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('net') }}
['192.168.32.0/24', '2001:db8:32c:faad::/64']

You can also check how many IP addresses can be in a certain range:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('net') | ipaddr('size') }}
[256, 18446744073709551616L]

By specifying a network range as a query, you can check if given value is in that range:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('192.0.0.0/8') }}
['192.24.2.1', '192.168.32.0/24']

If you specify a positive or negative integer as a query, ipaddr() will treat this as an index and will return specific IP address from a network range, in the ‘host/prefix’ format:

# First IP address (network address)
# {{ test_list | ipaddr('net') | ipaddr('0') }}
['192.168.32.0/24', '2001:db8:32c:faad::/64']

# Second IP address (usually gateway host)
# {{ test_list | ipaddr('net') | ipaddr('1') }}
['192.168.32.1/24', '2001:db8:32c:faad::1/64']

# Last IP address (broadcast in IPv4 networks)
# {{ test_list | ipaddr('net') | ipaddr('-1') }}
['192.168.32.255/24', '2001:db8:32c:faad:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff/64']

You can also select IP addresses from a range by their index, from the start or end of the range:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('net') | ipaddr('200') }}
['192.168.32.200/24', '2001:db8:32c:faad::c8/64']

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('net') | ipaddr('-200') }}
['192.168.32.56/24', '2001:db8:32c:faad:ffff:ffff:ffff:ff38/64']

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('net') | ipaddr('400') }}
['2001:db8:32c:faad::190/64']

Getting information from host/prefix values

Very frequently you use combination of IP addresses and subnet prefixes (“CIDR”), this is even more common with IPv6. ipaddr() filter can extract useful data from these prefixes.

Here’s an example set of two host prefixes (with some “control” values):

host_prefix = ['2001:db8:deaf:be11::ef3/64', '192.0.2.48/24', '127.0.0.1', '192.168.0.0/16']

First, let’s make sure that we only work with correct host/prefix values, not just subnets or single IP addresses:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('host/prefix') }}
['2001:db8:deaf:be11::ef3/64', '192.0.2.48/24']

In Debian-based systems, network configuration stored in /etc/network/interfaces file uses combination of IP address, network address, netmask and broadcast address to configure IPv4 network interface. We can get these values from a single ‘host/prefix’ combination:

# Jinja2 template
{% set ipv4_host = host_prefix | unique | ipv4('host/prefix') | first %}
iface eth0 inet static
    address   {{ ipv4_host | ipaddr('address') }}
    network   {{ ipv4_host | ipaddr('network') }}
    netmask   {{ ipv4_host | ipaddr('netmask') }}
    broadcast {{ ipv4_host | ipaddr('broadcast') }}

# Generated configuration file
iface eth0 inet static
    address   192.0.2.48
    network   192.0.2.0
    netmask   255.255.255.0
    broadcast 192.0.2.255

In above example, we needed to handle the fact that values were stored in a list, which is unusual in IPv4 networks, where only single IP address can be set on an interface. However, IPv6 networks can have multiple IP addresses set on an interface:

# Jinja2 template
iface eth0 inet6 static
  {% set ipv6_list = host_prefix | unique | ipv6('host/prefix') %}
  address {{ ipv6_list[0] }}
  {% if ipv6_list | length > 1 %}
  {% for subnet in ipv6_list[1:] %}
  up   /sbin/ip address add {{ subnet }} dev eth0
  down /sbin/ip address del {{ subnet }} dev eth0
  {% endfor %}
  {% endif %}

# Generated configuration file
iface eth0 inet6 static
  address 2001:db8:deaf:be11::ef3/64

If needed, you can extract subnet and prefix information from ‘host/prefix’ value:

# {{ host_prefix | ipaddr('host/prefix') | ipaddr('subnet') }}
['2001:db8:deaf:be11::/64', '192.0.2.0/24']

# {{ host_prefix | ipaddr('host/prefix') | ipaddr('prefix') }}
[64, 24]

Converting subnet masks to CIDR notation

Given a subnet in the form of network address and subnet mask, it can be converted into CIDR notation using ipaddr(). This can be useful for converting Ansible facts gathered about network configuration from subnet masks into CIDR format:

ansible_default_ipv4: {
    address: "192.168.0.11",
    alias: "eth0",
    broadcast: "192.168.0.255",
    gateway: "192.168.0.1",
    interface: "eth0",
    macaddress: "fa:16:3e:c4:bd:89",
    mtu: 1500,
    netmask: "255.255.255.0",
    network: "192.168.0.0",
    type: "ether"
}

First concatenate network and netmask:

net_mask = "{{ ansible_default_ipv4.network }}/{{ ansible_default_ipv4.netmask }}"
'192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0'

This result can be canonicalised with ipaddr() to produce a subnet in CIDR format:

# {{ net_mask | ipaddr('prefix') }}
'24'

# {{ net_mask | ipaddr('net') }}
'192.168.0.0/24'

IP address conversion

Here’s our test list again:

# Example list of values
test_list = ['192.24.2.1', 'host.fqdn', '::1', '192.168.32.0/24', 'fe80::100/10', True, '', '42540766412265424405338506004571095040/64']

You can convert IPv4 addresses into IPv6 addresses:

# {{ test_list | ipv4('ipv6') }}
['::ffff:192.24.2.1/128', '::ffff:192.168.32.0/120']

Converting from IPv6 to IPv4 works very rarely:

# {{ test_list | ipv6('ipv4') }}
['0.0.0.1/32']

But we can make double conversion if needed:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('ipv6') | ipaddr('ipv4') }}
['192.24.2.1/32', '0.0.0.1/32', '192.168.32.0/24']

You can convert IP addresses to integers, the same way that you can convert integers into IP addresses:

# {{ test_list | ipaddr('address') | ipaddr('int') }}
[3222798849, 1, '3232243712/24', '338288524927261089654018896841347694848/10', '42540766412265424405338506004571095040/64']

You can convert IP addresses to PTR records:

# {% for address in test_list | ipaddr %}
# {{ address | ipaddr('revdns') }}
# {% endfor %}
1.2.24.192.in-addr.arpa.
1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.ip6.arpa.
0.32.168.192.in-addr.arpa.
0.0.1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.8.e.f.ip6.arpa.
0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.d.a.a.f.c.2.3.0.8.b.d.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa.

Converting IPv4 address to 6to4 address

6to4 tunnel is a way to access IPv6 Internet from IPv4-only network. If you have a public IPv4 address, you automatically can configure it’s IPv6 equivalent in 2002::/16 network range - after conversion you will gain access to a 2002:xxxx:xxxx::/48 subnet which could be split into 65535 /64 subnets if needed.

To convert your IPv4 address, just send it through '6to4' filter. It will be automatically converted to a router address (with ::1/48 host address):

# {{ '193.0.2.0' | ipaddr('6to4') }}
2002:c100:0200::1/48

Subnet manipulation

ipsubnet() filter can be used to manipulate network subnets in several ways.

Here is some example IP address and subnet:

address = '192.168.144.5'
subnet  = '192.168.0.0/16'

To check if a given string is a subnet, pass it through the filter without any arguments. If given string is an IP address, it will be converted into a subnet:

# {{ address | ipsubnet }}
192.168.144.5/32

# {{ subnet | ipsubnet }}
192.168.0.0/16

If you specify a subnet size as first parameter of ipsubnet() filter, and subnet size is smaller than current one, you will get number of subnets a given subnet can be split into:

# {{ subnet | ipsubnet(20) }}
16

Second argument of ipsubnet() filter is an index number; by specifying it you can get new subnet with specified size:

# First subnet
# {{ subnet | ipsubnet(20, 0) }}
192.168.0.0/20

# Last subnet
# {{ subnet | ipsubnet(20, -1) }}
192.168.240.0/20

# Fifth subnet
# {{ subnet | ipsubnet(20, 5) }}
192.168.80.0/20

# Fifth to last subnet
# {{ subnet | ipsubnet(20, -5) }}
192.168.176.0/20

If you specify an IP address instead of a subnet, and give a subnet size as a first argument, ipsubnet() filter will instead return biggest subnet that contains a given IP address:

# {{ address | ipsubnet(20) }}
192.168.128.0/20

By specifying an index number as a second argument, you can select smaller and smaller subnets:

# First subnet
# {{ address | ipsubnet(18, 0) }}
192.168.128.0/18

# Last subnet
# {{ address | ipsubnet(18, -1) }}
192.168.144.4/31

# Fifth subnet
# {{ address | ipsubnet(18, 5) }}
192.168.144.0/23

# Fifth to last subnet
# {{ address | ipsubnet(18, -5) }}
192.168.144.0/27

You can use ipsubnet() filter with ipaddr() filter to for example split given /48 prefix into smaller, /64 subnets:

# {{ '193.0.2.0' | ipaddr('6to4') | ipsubnet(64, 58820) | ipaddr('1') }}
2002:c100:200:e5c4::1/64

Because of the size of IPv6 subnets, iteration over all of them to find the correct one may take some time on slower computers, depending on the size difference between subnets.

MAC address filter

You can use hwaddr() filter to check if a given string is a MAC address or convert it between various formats. Examples:

# Example MAC address
macaddress = '1a:2b:3c:4d:5e:6f'

# Check if given string is a MAC address
# {{ macaddress | hwaddr }}
1a:2b:3c:4d:5e:6f

# Convert MAC address to PostgreSQL format
# {{ macaddress | hwaddr('pgsql') }}
1a2b3c:4d5e6f

# Convert MAC address to Cisco format
# {{ macaddress | hwaddr('cisco') }}
1a2b.3c4d.5e6f

See also

Playbooks
An introduction to playbooks
Filters
Introduction to Jinja2 filters and their uses
Conditionals
Conditional statements in playbooks
Variables
All about variables
Loops
Looping in playbooks
Playbook Roles and Include Statements
Playbook organization by roles
Best Practices
Best practices in playbooks
User Mailing List
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