Using collections

Collections are a distribution format for Ansible content that can include playbooks, roles, modules, and plugins. You can install and use collections through Ansible Galaxy.

Installing collections

Installing collections with ansible-galaxy

You can use the ansible-galaxy collection install command to install a collection on your system.

Note

By default, ansible-galaxy uses https://galaxy.ansible.com as the Galaxy server (as listed in the ansible.cfg file under GALAXY_SERVER). You do not need any further configuration. See Configuring the ansible-galaxy client if you are using any other Galaxy server, such as Red Hat Automation Hub).

To install a collection hosted in Galaxy:

ansible-galaxy collection install my_namespace.my_collection

You can also directly use the tarball from your build:

ansible-galaxy collection install my_namespace-my_collection-1.0.0.tar.gz -p ./collections

Note

The install command automatically appends the path ansible_collections to the one specified with the -p option unless the parent directory is already in a folder called ansible_collections.

When using the -p option to specify the install path, use one of the values configured in COLLECTIONS_PATHS, as this is where Ansible itself will expect to find collections. If you don’t specify a path, ansible-galaxy collection install installs the collection to the first path defined in COLLECTIONS_PATHS, which by default is ~/.ansible/collections

You can also keep a collection adjacent to the current playbook, under a collections/ansible_collections/ directory structure.

play.yml
├── collections/
│   └── ansible_collections/
│               └── my_namespace/
│                   └── my_collection/<collection structure lives here>

See Collection structure for details on the collection directory structure.

Installing an older version of a collection

You can only have one version of a collection installed at a time. By default ansible-galaxy installs the latest available version. If you want to install a specific version, you can add a version range identifier. For example, to install the 1.0.0-beta.1 version of the collection:

ansible-galaxy collection install my_namespace.my_collection:==1.0.0-beta.1

You can specify multiple range identifiers separated by ,. Use single quotes so the shell passes the entire command, including >, !, and other operators, along. For example, to install the most recent version that is greater than or equal to 1.0.0 and less than 2.0.0:

ansible-galaxy collection install 'my_namespace.my_collection:>=1.0.0,<2.0.0'

Ansible will always install the most recent version that meets the range identifiers you specify. You can use the following range identifiers:

  • *: The most recent version. This is the default.
  • !=: Not equal to the version specified.
  • ==: Exactly the version specified.
  • >=: Greater than or equal to the version specified.
  • >: Greater than the version specified.
  • <=: Less than or equal to the version specified.
  • <: Less than the version specified.

Note

By default ansible-galaxy ignores pre-release versions. To install a pre-release version, you must use the == range identifier to require it explicitly.

Install multiple collections with a requirements file

You can also setup a requirements.yml file to install multiple collections in one command. This file is a YAML file in the format:

---
collections:
# With just the collection name
- my_namespace.my_collection

# With the collection name, version, and source options
- name: my_namespace.my_other_collection
  version: 'version range identifiers (default: ``*``)'
  source: 'The Galaxy URL to pull the collection from (default: ``--api-server`` from cmdline)'

The version key can take in the same range identifier format documented above.

Roles can also be specified and placed under the roles key. The values follow the same format as a requirements file used in older Ansible releases.

Note

While both roles and collections can be specified in one requirements file, they need to be installed separately. The ansible-galaxy role install -r requirements.yml will only install roles and ansible-galaxy collection install -r requirements.yml -p ./ will only install collections.

Configuring the ansible-galaxy client

By default, ansible-galaxy uses https://galaxy.ansible.com as the Galaxy server (as listed in the ansible.cfg file under GALAXY_SERVER).

You can configure this to use other servers (such as Red Hat Automation Hub or a custom Galaxy server) as follows:

To configure a Galaxy server list in ansible.cfg:

  1. Add the server_list option under the [galaxy] section to one or more server names.
  2. Create a new section for each server name.
  3. Set the url option for each server name.

Note

The url option for each server name must end with a forward slash /.

For Automation Hub, you additionally need to:

  1. Set the auth_url option for each server name.
  2. Set the API token for each server name. Go to https://cloud.redhat.com/ansible/automation-hub/token/ and click :Get API token from the version dropdown to copy your API token.

The following example shows how to configure multiple servers:

[galaxy]
server_list = automation_hub, my_org_hub, release_galaxy, test_galaxy

[galaxy_server.automation_hub]
url=https://cloud.redhat.com/api/automation-hub/
auth_url=https://sso.redhat.com/auth/realms/redhat-external/protocol/openid-connect/token

token=my_ah_token

[galaxy_server.my_org_hub]
url=https://automation.my_org/
username=my_user
password=my_pass

[galaxy_server.release_galaxy]
url=https://galaxy.ansible.com/
token=my_token

[galaxy_server.test_galaxy]
url=https://galaxy-dev.ansible.com/
token=my_test_token

Note

You can use the --server command line argument to select an explicit Galaxy server in the server_list and the value of this argument should match the name of the server. To use a server not in the server list, set the value to the URL to access that server (all servers in the server list will be ignored). Also the --api-key argument is not applied to any of the predefined servers. It is only applied if no server list is defined or a URL was specified by --server.

Galaxy server list configuration options

The GALAXY_SERVER_LIST option is a list of server identifiers in a prioritized order. When searching for a collection, the install process will search in that order, e.g. automation_hub first, then my_org_hub, release_galaxy, and finally test_galaxy until the collection is found. The actual Galaxy instance is then defined under the section [galaxy_server.{{ id }}] where {{ id }} is the server identifier defined in the list. This section can then define the following keys:

  • url: The URL of the galaxy instance to connect to, this is required.
  • token: A token key to use for authentication against the Galaxy instance, this is mutually exclusive with username
  • username: The username to use for basic authentication against the Galaxy instance, this is mutually exclusive with token
  • password: The password to use for basic authentication
  • auth_url: The URL of a Keycloak server ‘token_endpoint’ if using SSO auth (Automation Hub for ex). This is mutually exclusive with username. auth_url requires token.

As well as being defined in the ansible.cfg file, these server options can be defined as an environment variable. The environment variable is in the form ANSIBLE_GALAXY_SERVER_{{ id }}_{{ key }} where {{ id }} is the upper case form of the server identifier and {{ key }} is the key to define. For example I can define token for release_galaxy by setting ANSIBLE_GALAXY_SERVER_RELEASE_GALAXY_TOKEN=secret_token.

For operations where only one Galaxy server is used, i.e. publish, info, login then the first entry in the server_list is used unless an explicit server was passed in as a command line argument.

Note

Once a collection is found, any of its requirements are only searched within the same Galaxy instance as the parent collection. The install process will not search for a collection requirement in a different Galaxy instance.

Using collections in a Playbook

Once installed, you can reference a collection content by its fully qualified collection name (FQCN):

- hosts: all
  tasks:
    - my_namespace.my_collection.mymodule:
        option1: value

This works for roles or any type of plugin distributed within the collection:

- hosts: all
  tasks:
    - import_role:
        name: my_namespace.my_collection.role1

    - my_namespace.mycollection.mymodule:
        option1: value

    - debug:
        msg: '{{ lookup("my_namespace.my_collection.lookup1", 'param1')| my_namespace.my_collection.filter1 }}'

To avoid a lot of typing, you can use the collections keyword added in Ansible 2.8:

- hosts: all
  collections:
   - my_namespace.my_collection
  tasks:
    - import_role:
        name: role1

    - mymodule:
        option1: value

    - debug:
        msg: '{{ lookup("my_namespace.my_collection.lookup1", 'param1')| my_namespace.my_collection.filter1 }}'

This keyword creates a ‘search path’ for non namespaced plugin references. It does not import roles or anything else. Notice that you still need the FQCN for non-action or module plugins.

See also

Developing collections
Develop or modify a collection.
Collection Galaxy metadata structure
Understand the collections metadata structure.
Mailing List
The development mailing list
irc.freenode.net
#ansible IRC chat channel