Ansible works against multiple systems in your infrastructure at the same time.
It does this by selecting portions of systems listed in Ansible’s inventory,
which defaults to being saved in the location
You can specify a different inventory file using the
-i <path> option on the command line.
Not only is this inventory configurable, but you can also use multiple inventory files at the same time and pull inventory from dynamic or cloud sources or different formats (YAML, ini, etc), as described in Working With Dynamic Inventory. Introduced in version 2.4, Ansible has Inventory Plugins to make this flexible and customizable.
The inventory file can be in one of many formats, depending on the inventory plugins you have.
For this example, the format for
/etc/ansible/hosts is an INI-like (one of Ansible’s defaults) and looks like this:
mail.example.com [webservers] foo.example.com bar.example.com [dbservers] one.example.com two.example.com three.example.com
The headings in brackets are group names, which are used in classifying systems and deciding what systems you are controlling at what times and for what purpose.
A YAML version would look like:
all: hosts: mail.example.com: children: webservers: hosts: foo.example.com: bar.example.com: dbservers: hosts: one.example.com: two.example.com: three.example.com:
It is ok to put systems in more than one group, for instance a server could be both a webserver and a dbserver. If you do, note that variables will come from all of the groups they are a member of. Variable precedence is detailed in a later chapter.
If you have hosts that run on non-standard SSH ports you can put the port number after the hostname with a colon. Ports listed in your SSH config file won’t be used with the paramiko connection but will be used with the openssh connection.
To make things explicit, it is suggested that you set them if things are not running on the default port:
Suppose you have just static IPs and want to set up some aliases that live in your host file, or you are connecting through tunnels. You can also describe hosts via variables:
jumper ansible_port=5555 ansible_host=192.0.2.50
... hosts: jumper: ansible_port: 5555 ansible_host: 192.0.2.50
In the above example, trying to ansible against the host alias “jumper” (which may not even be a real hostname) will contact 192.0.2.50 on port 5555. Note that this is using a feature of the inventory file to define some special variables. Generally speaking, this is not the best way to define variables that describe your system policy, but we’ll share suggestions on doing this later.
Values passed in the INI format using the
key=value syntax are interpreted differently depending on where they are declared.
* When declared inline with the host, INI values are interpreted as Python literal structures
(strings, numbers, tuples, lists, dicts, booleans, None). Host lines accept multiple
key=value parameters per line. Therefore they need a way to indicate that a space is part of a value rather than a separator.
* When declared in a
:vars section, INI values are interpreted as strings. For example
var=FALSE would create a string equal to ‘FALSE’. Unlike host lines,
:vars sections accept only a single entry per line, so everything after the
= must be the value for the entry.
* Do not rely on types set during definition, always make sure you specify type with a filter when needed when consuming the variable.
* Consider using YAML format for inventory sources to avoid confusion on the actual type of a variable. The YAML inventory plugin processes variable values consistently and correctly.
If you are adding a lot of hosts following similar patterns, you can do this rather than listing each hostname:
... webservers: hosts: www[01:50].example.com:
For numeric patterns, leading zeros can be included or removed, as desired. Ranges are inclusive. You can also define alphabetic ranges:
You can also select the connection type and user on a per host basis:
[targets] localhost ansible_connection=local other1.example.com ansible_connection=ssh ansible_user=mpdehaan other2.example.com ansible_connection=ssh ansible_user=mdehaan
As mentioned above, setting these in the inventory file is only a shorthand, and we’ll discuss how to store them in individual files in the ‘host_vars’ directory a bit later on.
As described above, it is easy to assign variables to hosts that will be used later in playbooks:
[atlanta] host1 http_port=80 maxRequestsPerChild=808 host2 http_port=303 maxRequestsPerChild=909
The YAML version:
atlanta: host1: http_port: 80 maxRequestsPerChild: 808 host2: http_port: 303 maxRequestsPerChild: 909
Variables can also be applied to an entire group at once:
The INI way:
[atlanta] host1 host2 [atlanta:vars] ntp_server=ntp.atlanta.example.com proxy=proxy.atlanta.example.com
The YAML version:
atlanta: hosts: host1: host2: vars: ntp_server: ntp.atlanta.example.com proxy: proxy.atlanta.example.com
Be aware that this is only a convenient way to apply variables to multiple hosts at once; even though you can target hosts by group, variables are always flattened to the host level before a play is executed.
You can make groups of groups using the
:children suffix in INI or the
children: entry in YAML.
You can apply variables to these groups of groups using
[atlanta] host1 host2 [raleigh] host2 host3 [southeast:children] atlanta raleigh [southeast:vars] some_server=foo.southeast.example.com halon_system_timeout=30 self_destruct_countdown=60 escape_pods=2 [usa:children] southeast northeast southwest northwest
all: children: usa: children: southeast: children: atlanta: hosts: host1: host2: raleigh: hosts: host2: host3: vars: some_server: foo.southeast.example.com halon_system_timeout: 30 self_destruct_countdown: 60 escape_pods: 2 northeast: northwest: southwest:
If you need to store lists or hash data, or prefer to keep host and group specific variables separate from the inventory file, see the next section. Child groups have a couple of properties to note:
- Any host that is member of a child group is automatically a member of the parent group.
- A child group’s variables will have higher precedence (override) a parent group’s variables.
- Groups can have multiple parents and children, but not circular relationships.
- Hosts can also be in multiple groups, but there will only be one instance of a host, merging the data from the multiple groups.
There are two default groups:
all contains every host.
ungrouped contains all hosts that don’t have another group aside from
Every host will always belong to at least 2 groups.
ungrouped are always present, they can be implicit and not appear in group listings like
Although you can store variables in the main inventory file, storing separate host and group variables files may help you track your variable values more easily.
Host and group variables can be stored in individual files relative to the inventory file (not directory, it is always the file).
These variable files are in YAML format. Valid file extensions include ‘.yml’, ‘.yaml’, ‘.json’, or no file extension. See YAML Syntax if you are new to YAML.
Let’s say, for example, that you keep your inventory file at
/etc/ansible/hosts. You have a host named ‘foosball’ that’s a member of two groups: ‘raleigh’ and ‘webservers’. That host will use variables
in YAML files at the following locations:
/etc/ansible/group_vars/raleigh # can optionally end in '.yml', '.yaml', or '.json' /etc/ansible/group_vars/webservers /etc/ansible/host_vars/foosball
For instance, suppose you have hosts grouped by datacenter, and each datacenter uses some different servers. The data in the groupfile ‘/etc/ansible/group_vars/raleigh’ for the ‘raleigh’ group might look like:
--- ntp_server: acme.example.org database_server: storage.example.org
It is okay if these files do not exist, as this is an optional feature.
As an advanced use case, you can create directories named after your groups or hosts, and Ansible will read all the files in these directories in lexicographical order. An example with the ‘raleigh’ group:
All hosts that are in the ‘raleigh’ group will have the variables defined in these files available to them. This can be very useful to keep your variables organized when a single file starts to be too big, or when you want to use Ansible Vault on a part of a group’s variables.
host_vars/ directories can exist in
the playbook directory OR the inventory directory. If both paths exist, variables in the playbook
directory will override variables set in the inventory directory.
ansible-playbook command looks for playbooks in the current working directory by default. Other Ansible commands (for example,
ansible-console, etc.) will only look for
host_vars/ in the
inventory directory unless you provide the
on the command line.
Tip: Keeping your inventory file and variables in a git repo (or other version control) is an excellent way to track changes to your inventory and host variables.
By default variables are merged/flattened to the specific host before a play is run. This keeps Ansible focused on the Host and Task, so groups don’t really survive outside of inventory and host matching. By default, Ansible overwrites variables including the ones defined for a group and/or host (see DEFAULT_HASH_BEHAVIOUR). The order/precedence is (from lowest to highest):
When groups of the same parent/child level are merged, it is done alphabetically, and the last group loaded overwrites the previous groups. For example, an a_group will be merged with b_group and b_group vars that match will overwrite the ones in a_group.
New in version 2.4.
Starting in Ansible version 2.4, users can use the group variable
ansible_group_priority to change the merge order for groups of the same level (after the parent/child order is resolved). The larger the number, the later it will be merged, giving it higher priority. This variable defaults to
1 if not set. For example:
a_group: testvar: a ansible_group_priority: 10 b_group： testvar: b
In this example, if both groups have the same priority, the result would normally have been
testvar == b, but since we are giving the
a_group a higher priority the result will be
testvar == a.
As an advanced use case you can target multiple inventory sources (directories, dynamic inventory scripts
or files supported by inventory plugins) at the same time by giving multiple inventory parameters from the command
line or by configuring
ANSIBLE_INVENTORY. This can be useful when you want to target normally
separate environments, like staging and production, at the same time for a specific action.
Target two sources from the command line like this:
ansible-playbook get_logs.yml -i staging -i production
Keep in mind that if there are variable conflicts in the inventories, they are resolved according
to the rules described in How variables are merged and Variable precedence: Where should I put a variable?.
The merging order is controlled by the order of the inventory source parameters.
[all:vars] in staging inventory defines
myvar = 1, but production inventory defines
myvar = 2,
the playbook will be run with
myvar = 2. The result would be reversed if the playbook was run with
-i production -i staging.
Aggregating inventory sources with a directory
You can also create an inventory by combining multiple inventory sources and source types under a directory. This can be useful for combining static and dynamic hosts and managing them as one inventory. The following inventory combines an inventory plugin source, a dynamic inventory script, and a file with static hosts:
inventory/ openstack.yml # configure inventory plugin to get hosts from Openstack cloud dynamic-inventory.py # add additional hosts with dynamic inventory script static-inventory # add static hosts and groups group_vars/ all.yml # assign variables to all hosts
You can target this inventory directory simply like this:
ansible-playbook example.yml -i inventory
It can be useful to control the merging order of the inventory sources if there’s variable conflicts or group of groups dependencies to the other inventory sources. The inventories are merged in alphabetical order according to the filenames so the result can be controlled by adding prefixes to the files:
inventory/ 01-openstack.yml # configure inventory plugin to get hosts from Openstack cloud 02-dynamic-inventory.py # add additional hosts with dynamic inventory script 03-static-inventory # add static hosts group_vars/ all.yml # assign variables to all hosts
myvar = 1 for the group
myvar = 2,
myvar = 3, the playbook will be run with
myvar = 3.
As described above, setting the following variables control how Ansible interacts with remote hosts.
Ansible does not expose a channel to allow communication between the user and the ssh process to accept a password manually to decrypt an ssh key when using the ssh connection plugin (which is the default). The use of
ssh-agent is highly recommended.
paramiko. The default is smart. Non-SSH based types are described in the next section.
General for all connections:
Specific to the SSH connection:
ProxyCommandfor a certain host (or group).
Privilege escalation (see Ansible Privilege Escalation for further details):
ansible_su, allows to force privilege escalation
ansible_su_user, allows to set the user you become through privilege escalation
ansible_su_pass, allows you to set the privilege escalation password (never store this variable in plain text; always use a vault. See Variables and Vaults)
ansible_su_exe, allows you to set the executable for the escalation method selected
ansible_su_flags, allows you to set the flags passed to the selected escalation method. This can be also set globally in
Remote host environment parameters:
sh-style syntax. Setting this to
fishwill cause commands executed on target systems to follow those shell’s syntax instead.
New in version 2.1.
ansible.cfgwhich defaults to /bin/sh. You should really only change it if is not possible to use /bin/sh (i.e. /bin/sh is not installed on the target machine or cannot be run from sudo.).
Examples from an Ansible-INI host file:
some_host ansible_port=2222 ansible_user=manager aws_host ansible_ssh_private_key_file=/home/example/.ssh/aws.pem freebsd_host ansible_python_interpreter=/usr/local/bin/python ruby_module_host ansible_ruby_interpreter=/usr/bin/ruby.1.9.3
As stated in the previous section, Ansible executes playbooks over SSH but it is not limited to this connection type.
With the host specific parameter
ansible_connection=<connector>, the connection type can be changed.
The following non-SSH based connectors are available:
This connector can be used to deploy the playbook to the control machine itself.
This connector deploys the playbook directly into Docker containers using the local Docker client. The following parameters are processed by this connector:
become_userwill be used to operate within the container.
Here is an example of how to instantly deploy to created containers:
- name: create jenkins container docker_container: docker_host: myserver.net:4243 name: my_jenkins image: jenkins - name: add container to inventory add_host: name: my_jenkins ansible_connection: docker ansible_docker_extra_args: "--tlsverify --tlscacert=/path/to/ca.pem --tlscert=/path/to/client-cert.pem --tlskey=/path/to/client-key.pem -H=tcp://myserver.net:4243" ansible_user: jenkins changed_when: false - name: create directory for ssh keys delegate_to: my_jenkins file: path: "/var/jenkins_home/.ssh/jupiter" state: directory
If you’re reading the docs from the beginning, this may be the first example you’ve seen of an Ansible playbook. This is not an inventory file. Playbooks will be covered in great detail later in the docs.