community.crypto.openssh_cert module – Generate OpenSSH host or user certificates.

Note

This module is part of the community.crypto collection (version 2.3.2).

You might already have this collection installed if you are using the ansible package. It is not included in ansible-core. To check whether it is installed, run ansible-galaxy collection list.

To install it, use: ansible-galaxy collection install community.crypto.

To use it in a playbook, specify: community.crypto.openssh_cert.

Synopsis

  • Generate and regenerate OpenSSH host or user certificates.

Requirements

The below requirements are needed on the host that executes this module.

  • ssh-keygen

Parameters

Parameter

Comments

attributes

aliases: attr

string

added in 2.3 of ansible.builtin

The attributes the resulting filesystem object should have.

To get supported flags look at the man page for chattr on the target system.

This string should contain the attributes in the same order as the one displayed by lsattr.

The = operator is assumed as default, otherwise + or - operators need to be included in the string.

force

boolean

Should the certificate be regenerated even if it already exists and is valid.

Equivalent to regenerate=always.

Choices:

  • no ← (default)

  • yes

group

string

Name of the group that should own the filesystem object, as would be fed to chown.

identifier

string

Specify the key identity when signing a public key. The identifier that is logged by the server when the certificate is used for authentication.

ignore_timestamps

boolean

added in 2.2.0 of community.crypto

Whether the valid_from and valid_to timestamps should be ignored for idempotency checks.

However, the values will still be applied to a new certificate if it meets any other necessary conditions for generation/regeneration.

Choices:

  • no ← (default)

  • yes

mode

raw

The permissions the resulting filesystem object should have.

For those used to /usr/bin/chmod remember that modes are actually octal numbers. You must either add a leading zero so that Ansible’s YAML parser knows it is an octal number (like 0644 or 01777) or quote it (like '644' or '1777') so Ansible receives a string and can do its own conversion from string into number.

Giving Ansible a number without following one of these rules will end up with a decimal number which will have unexpected results.

As of Ansible 1.8, the mode may be specified as a symbolic mode (for example, u+rwx or u=rw,g=r,o=r).

If mode is not specified and the destination filesystem object does not exist, the default umask on the system will be used when setting the mode for the newly created filesystem object.

If mode is not specified and the destination filesystem object does exist, the mode of the existing filesystem object will be used.

Specifying mode is the best way to ensure filesystem objects are created with the correct permissions. See CVE-2020-1736 for further details.

options

list / elements=string

Specify certificate options when signing a key. The option that are valid for user certificates are:

clear: Clear all enabled permissions. This is useful for clearing the default set of permissions so permissions may be added individually.

force-command=command: Forces the execution of command instead of any shell or command specified by the user when the certificate is used for authentication.

no-agent-forwarding: Disable ssh-agent forwarding (permitted by default).

no-port-forwarding: Disable port forwarding (permitted by default).

no-pty: Disable PTY allocation (permitted by default).

no-user-rc: Disable execution of ~/.ssh/rc by sshd (permitted by default).

no-x11-forwarding: Disable X11 forwarding (permitted by default)

permit-agent-forwarding: Allows ssh-agent forwarding.

permit-port-forwarding: Allows port forwarding.

permit-pty: Allows PTY allocation.

permit-user-rc: Allows execution of ~/.ssh/rc by sshd.

permit-x11-forwarding: Allows X11 forwarding.

source-address=address_list: Restrict the source addresses from which the certificate is considered valid. The address_list is a comma-separated list of one or more address/netmask pairs in CIDR format.

At present, no options are valid for host keys.

owner

string

Name of the user that should own the filesystem object, as would be fed to chown.

path

path / required

Path of the file containing the certificate.

pkcs11_provider

string

added in 1.1.0 of community.crypto

To use a signing key that resides on a PKCS#11 token, set this to the name (or full path) of the shared library to use with the token. Usually libpkcs11.so.

If this is set, signing_key needs to point to a file containing the public key of the CA.

principals

list / elements=string

Certificates may be limited to be valid for a set of principal (user/host) names. By default, generated certificates are valid for all users or hosts.

public_key

path

The path to the public key that will be signed with the signing key in order to generate the certificate.

Required if state is present.

regenerate

string

added in 1.8.0 of community.crypto

When never the task will fail if a certificate already exists at path and is unreadable otherwise a new certificate will only be generated if there is no existing certificate.

When fail the task will fail if a certificate already exists at path and does not match the module’s options.

When partial_idempotence an existing certificate will be regenerated based on serial, signature_algorithm, type, valid_from, valid_to, valid_at, and principals. valid_from and valid_to can be excluded by ignore_timestamps=true.

When full_idempotence identifier, options, public_key, and signing_key are also considered when compared against an existing certificate.

always is equivalent to force=true.

Choices:

  • never

  • fail

  • partial_idempotence ← (default)

  • full_idempotence

  • always

selevel

string

The level part of the SELinux filesystem object context.

This is the MLS/MCS attribute, sometimes known as the range.

When set to _default, it will use the level portion of the policy if available.

serial_number

integer

Specify the certificate serial number. The serial number is logged by the server when the certificate is used for authentication. The certificate serial number may be used in a KeyRevocationList. The serial number may be omitted for checks, but must be specified again for a new certificate. Note: The default value set by ssh-keygen is 0.

serole

string

The role part of the SELinux filesystem object context.

When set to _default, it will use the role portion of the policy if available.

setype

string

The type part of the SELinux filesystem object context.

When set to _default, it will use the type portion of the policy if available.

seuser

string

The user part of the SELinux filesystem object context.

By default it uses the system policy, where applicable.

When set to _default, it will use the user portion of the policy if available.

signature_algorithm

string

added in 1.10.0 of community.crypto

As of OpenSSH 8.2 the SHA-1 signature algorithm for RSA keys has been disabled and ssh will refuse host certificates signed with the SHA-1 algorithm. OpenSSH 8.1 made rsa-sha2-512 the default algorithm when acting as a CA and signing certificates with a RSA key. However, for OpenSSH versions less than 8.1 the SHA-2 signature algorithms, rsa-sha2-256 or rsa-sha2-512, must be specified using this option if compatibility with newer ssh clients is required. Conversely if hosts using OpenSSH version 8.2 or greater must remain compatible with ssh clients using OpenSSH less than 7.2, then ssh-rsa can be used when generating host certificates (a corresponding change to the sshd_config to add ssh-rsa to the CASignatureAlgorithms keyword is also required).

Using any value for this option with a non-RSA signing_key will cause this module to fail.

Note: OpenSSH versions prior to 7.2 do not support SHA-2 signature algorithms for RSA keys and OpenSSH versions prior to 7.3 do not support SHA-2 signature algorithms for certificates.

See https://www.openssh.com/txt/release-8.2 for more information.

Choices:

  • ssh-rsa

  • rsa-sha2-256

  • rsa-sha2-512

signing_key

path

The path to the private openssh key that is used for signing the public key in order to generate the certificate.

If the private key is on a PKCS#11 token (pkcs11_provider), set this to the path to the public key instead.

Required if state is present.

state

string

Whether the host or user certificate should exist or not, taking action if the state is different from what is stated.

Choices:

  • present ← (default)

  • absent

type

string

Whether the module should generate a host or a user certificate.

Required if state is present.

Choices:

  • host

  • user

unsafe_writes

boolean

added in 2.2 of ansible.builtin

Influence when to use atomic operation to prevent data corruption or inconsistent reads from the target filesystem object.

By default this module uses atomic operations to prevent data corruption or inconsistent reads from the target filesystem objects, but sometimes systems are configured or just broken in ways that prevent this. One example is docker mounted filesystem objects, which cannot be updated atomically from inside the container and can only be written in an unsafe manner.

This option allows Ansible to fall back to unsafe methods of updating filesystem objects when atomic operations fail (however, it doesn’t force Ansible to perform unsafe writes).

IMPORTANT! Unsafe writes are subject to race conditions and can lead to data corruption.

Choices:

  • no ← (default)

  • yes

use_agent

boolean

added in 1.3.0 of community.crypto

Should the ssh-keygen use a CA key residing in a ssh-agent.

Choices:

  • no ← (default)

  • yes

valid_at

string

Check if the certificate is valid at a certain point in time. If it is not the certificate will be regenerated. Time will always be interpreted as UTC. Mainly to be used with relative timespec for valid_from and / or valid_to. Note that if using relative time this module is NOT idempotent.

valid_from

string

The point in time the certificate is valid from. Time can be specified either as relative time or as absolute timestamp. Time will always be interpreted as UTC. Valid formats are: [+-]timespec | YYYY-MM-DD | YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS | YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS | always where timespec can be an integer + [w | d | h | m | s] (for example +32w1d2h). Note that if using relative time this module is NOT idempotent.

The value always is only supported for OpenSSH 7.7 and greater, however, the value 1970-01-01T00:00:01 can be used with earlier versions as an equivalent expression.

To ignore this value during comparison with an existing certificate set ignore_timestamps=true.

Required if state is present.

valid_to

string

The point in time the certificate is valid to. Time can be specified either as relative time or as absolute timestamp. Time will always be interpreted as UTC. Valid formats are: [+-]timespec | YYYY-MM-DD | YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS | YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS | forever where timespec can be an integer + [w | d | h | m | s] (for example +32w1d2h). Note that if using relative time this module is NOT idempotent.

To ignore this value during comparison with an existing certificate set ignore_timestamps=true.

Required if state is present.

Examples

- name: Generate an OpenSSH user certificate that is valid forever and for all users
  community.crypto.openssh_cert:
    type: user
    signing_key: /path/to/private_key
    public_key: /path/to/public_key.pub
    path: /path/to/certificate
    valid_from: always
    valid_to: forever

# Generate an OpenSSH host certificate that is valid for 32 weeks from now and will be regenerated
# if it is valid for less than 2 weeks from the time the module is being run
- name: Generate an OpenSSH host certificate with valid_from, valid_to and valid_at parameters
  community.crypto.openssh_cert:
    type: host
    signing_key: /path/to/private_key
    public_key: /path/to/public_key.pub
    path: /path/to/certificate
    valid_from: +0s
    valid_to: +32w
    valid_at: +2w
    ignore_timestamps: true

- name: Generate an OpenSSH host certificate that is valid forever and only for example.com and examplehost
  community.crypto.openssh_cert:
    type: host
    signing_key: /path/to/private_key
    public_key: /path/to/public_key.pub
    path: /path/to/certificate
    valid_from: always
    valid_to: forever
    principals:
        - example.com
        - examplehost

- name: Generate an OpenSSH host Certificate that is valid from 21.1.2001 to 21.1.2019
  community.crypto.openssh_cert:
    type: host
    signing_key: /path/to/private_key
    public_key: /path/to/public_key.pub
    path: /path/to/certificate
    valid_from: "2001-01-21"
    valid_to: "2019-01-21"

- name: Generate an OpenSSH user Certificate with clear and force-command option
  community.crypto.openssh_cert:
    type: user
    signing_key: /path/to/private_key
    public_key: /path/to/public_key.pub
    path: /path/to/certificate
    valid_from: always
    valid_to: forever
    options:
        - "clear"
        - "force-command=/tmp/bla/foo"

- name: Generate an OpenSSH user certificate using a PKCS#11 token
  community.crypto.openssh_cert:
    type: user
    signing_key: /path/to/ca_public_key.pub
    pkcs11_provider: libpkcs11.so
    public_key: /path/to/public_key.pub
    path: /path/to/certificate
    valid_from: always
    valid_to: forever

Return Values

Common return values are documented here, the following are the fields unique to this module:

Key

Description

filename

string

path to the certificate

Returned: changed or success

Sample: “/tmp/certificate-cert.pub”

info

list / elements=string

Information about the certificate. Output of ssh-keygen -L -f.

Returned: change or success

type

string

type of the certificate (host or user)

Returned: changed or success

Sample: “host”

Authors

  • David Kainz (@lolcube)